Using Alpine can make Python Docker builds 50× slower
When you’re choosing a base image for your Docker image, Alpine Linux is often recommended. Using Alpine, you’re told, will make your images smaller and speed up your builds. And if you’re using Go that’s reasonable advice.
But if you’re using Python, Alpine Linux will quite often:
- Make your builds much slower.
- Make your images bigger.
- Waste your time.
- On occassion, introduce obscure runtime bugs.
Let’s see why Alpine is recommended, and why you probably shouldn’t use it for your Python application.
Why people recommend Alpine
Let’s say we need to install
gcc as part of our image build, and we want to see how Alpine Linux compares to Ubuntu 18.04 in terms of build time and image size.
First, I’ll pull both images, and check their size:
$ docker pull --quiet ubuntu:18.04 docker.io/library/ubuntu:18.04 $ docker pull --quiet alpine docker.io/library/alpine:latest $ docker image ls ubuntu:18.04 REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID SIZE ubuntu 18.04 ccc6e87d482b 64.2MB $ docker image ls alpine REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID SIZE alpine latest e7d92cdc71fe 5.59MB
As you can see, the base image for Alpine is much smaller.
Next, we’ll try installing
gcc in both of them.
First, with Ubuntu:
FROM ubuntu:18.04 RUN apt-get update && \ apt-get install --no-install-recommends -y gcc && \ apt-get clean && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*
Note: Outside the topic under discussion, the Dockerfiles in this article are not examples of best practices, since the added complexity would obscure the main point of the article. So if you’re going to be running your Python application in production with Docker, here are two ways to apply best practices:
- If you want to DIY: A detailed checklist, with examples and references
- If you want a working setup ASAP: A template, with best practices implemented for you
We can then build and time that:
$ time docker build -t ubuntu-gcc -f Dockerfile.ubuntu --quiet . sha256:b6a3ee33acb83148cd273b0098f4c7eed01a82f47eeb8f5bec775c26d4fe4aae real 0m29.251s user 0m0.032s sys 0m0.026s $ docker image ls ubuntu-gcc REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE ubuntu-gcc latest b6a3ee33acb8 9 seconds ago 150MB
Now let’s make the equivalent Alpine
FROM alpine RUN apk add --update gcc
And again, build the image and check its size:
$ time docker build -t alpine-gcc -f Dockerfile.alpine --quiet . sha256:efd626923c1478ccde67db28911ef90799710e5b8125cf4ebb2b2ca200ae1ac3 real 0m15.461s user 0m0.026s sys 0m0.024s $ docker image ls alpine-gcc REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE alpine-gcc latest efd626923c14 7 seconds ago 105MB
As promised, Alpine images build faster and are smaller: 15 seconds instead of 30 seconds, and the image is 105MB instead of 150MB. That’s pretty good!
But when we switch to packaging a Python application, things start going wrong.
Let’s build a Python image
We want to package a Python application that uses
So one option is to use the Debian-based official Python image (which I pulled in advance), with the following
FROM python:3.8-slim RUN pip install --no-cache-dir matplotlib pandas
And when we build it:
$ docker build -f Dockerfile.slim -t python-matpan. Sending build context to Docker daemon 3.072kB Step 1/2 : FROM python:3.8-slim ---> 036ea1506a85 Step 2/2 : RUN pip install --no-cache-dir matplotlib pandas ---> Running in 13739b2a0917 Collecting matplotlib Downloading matplotlib-3.1.2-cp38-cp38-manylinux1_x86_64.whl (13.1 MB) Collecting pandas Downloading pandas-0.25.3-cp38-cp38-manylinux1_x86_64.whl (10.4 MB) ... Successfully built b98b5dc06690 Successfully tagged python-matpan:latest real 0m30.297s user 0m0.043s sys 0m0.020s
The resulting image is 363MB.
Can we do better with Alpine? Let’s try:
FROM python:3.8-alpine RUN pip install --no-cache-dir matplotlib pandas
And now we build it:
$ docker build -t python-matpan-alpine -f Dockerfile.alpine . Sending build context to Docker daemon 3.072kB Step 1/2 : FROM python:3.8-alpine ---> a0ee0c90a0db Step 2/2 : RUN pip install --no-cache-dir matplotlib pandas ---> Running in 6740adad3729 Collecting matplotlib Downloading matplotlib-3.1.2.tar.gz (40.9 MB) ERROR: Command errored out with exit status 1: command: /usr/local/bin/python -c 'import sys, setuptools, tokenize; sys.argv = '"'"'/ tmp/pip-install-a3olrixa/matplotlib/setup.py'"'"'; __file__='"'"'/tmp/pip-install-a3olrixa/matplotlib/setup.py'"'"';f=getattr(tokenize, '"'"'open'"'"', open)(__file__);code=f.read().replace('"'"'\r\n'"'"', '"'"'\n'"'"');f.close();exec(compile(code, __file__, '"'"'exec'"'"'))' egg_info --egg-base /tmp/pip-install-a3olrixa/matplotlib/pip-egg-info ... ERROR: Command errored out with exit status 1: python setup.py egg_info Check the logs for full command output. The command '/bin/sh -c pip install matplotlib pandas' returned a non-zero code: 1
What’s going on?
Standard PyPI wheels don’t work on Alpine
If you look at the Debian-based build above, you’ll see it’s downloading
This is a pre-compiled binary wheel.
Alpine, in contrast, downloads the source code (
matplotlib-3.1.2.tar.gz), because standard Linux wheels don’t work on Alpine Linux.
Most Linux distributions use the GNU version (
glibc) of the standard C library that is required by pretty much every C program, including Python.
But Alpine Linux uses
musl, those binary wheels are compiled against
glibc, and therefore Alpine disabled Linux wheel support.
Most Python packages these days include binary wheels on PyPI, significantly speeding install time. But if you’re using Alpine Linux you need to compile all the C code in every Python package that you use.
Which also means you need to figure out every single system library dependency yourself.
In this case, to figure out the dependencies I did some research, and ended up with the following updated
FROM python:3.8-alpine RUN apk --update add gcc build-base freetype-dev libpng-dev openblas-dev RUN pip install --no-cache-dir matplotlib pandas
And then we build it, and it takes…
… 25 minutes, 57 seconds! And the resulting image is 851MB.
Here’s a comparison between the two base images:
|Base image||Time to build||Image size||Research required|
Alpine builds are vastly slower, the image is bigger, and I had to do a bunch of research.
Can’t you work around these issues?
For faster build times, Alpine Edge, which will eventually become the next stable release, does have
And installing system packages is quite fast.
As of January 2020, however, the current stable release does not include these popular packages.
Even when they are available, however, system packages almost always lag what’s on PyPI, and it’s unlikely that Alpine will ever package everything that’s on PyPI. In practice most Python teams I know don’t use system packages for Python dependencies, they rely on PyPI or Conda Forge.
Some readers pointed out that you can remove the originally installed packages, or add an option not to cache package downloads, or use a multi-stage build. One reader attempt resulted in a 470MB image.
So yes, you can get an image that’s in the ballpark of the slim-based image, but the whole motivation for Alpine Linux is smaller images and faster builds.
With enough work you may be able to get a smaller image, but you’re still suffering from a 1500-second build time when they you get a 30-second build time using the
But wait, there’s more!
Alpine Linux can cause unexpected runtime bugs
While in theory the
musl C library used by Alpine is mostly compatible with the
glibc used by other Linux distributions, in practice the differences can cause problems.
And when problems do occur, they are going to be strange and unexpected.
- Alpine has a smaller default stack size for threads, which can lead to Python crashes.
- One Alpine user discovered that their Python application was much slower because of the way musl allocates memory vs. glibc.
- I once couldn’t do DNS lookups in Alpine images running on minikube (Kubernetes in a VM) when using the WeWork coworking space’s WiFi. The cause was a combination of a bad DNS setup by WeWork, the way Kubernetes and minikube do DNS, and musl’s handling of this edge case vs. what glibc does. musl wasn’t wrong (it matched the RFC), but I had to waste time figuring out the problem and then switching to a glibc-based image.
- Another user discovered issues with time formatting and parsing.
Most or perhaps all of these problems have already been fixed, but no doubt there are more problems to discover. Random breakage of this sort is just one more thing to worry about.
Don’t use Alpine Linux for Python images
Unless you want massively slower build times, larger images, more work, and the potential for obscure bugs, you’ll want to avoid Alpine Linux as a base image. For some recommendations on what you should use, see my article on choosing a good base image.
Learn how to build fast, production-ready Docker images—read the rest of the Docker packaging guide for Python.
Join my live, online class to learn more Docker packaging best practices for Python in production
You’re about to ship your Python application into production using Docker: your images are going to be critical infrastructure.
On June 11th and 12th, learn how to create production-ready packaging for Python applications by joining live online class.
Upgrade you skills with online training:
Production-ready Docker packaging for Python, June 11th+12th
Learn what it takes to package a Python application for production with Docker, from security to reproducibility to speed, with this live, two half-days online class.