Avoiding insecure images from Docker build caching
Docker builds can be slow, so you want to use Docker’s layer caching, reusing previous builds to speed up the current one. And while this will speed up builds, there’s a down-side as well: caching can lead to insecure images.
In this article I’ll cover:
- Why caching can mean insecure images.
- Bypassing Docker’s build cache.
- The process you need in place to keep your images secure.
Note: Outside any specific best practice being demonstrated, the Dockerfiles in this article are not examples of best practices, since the added complexity would obscure the main point of the article.
Need to ship quickly, and don’t have time to figure out every detail on your own? Read the concise, action-oriented Python on Docker Production Handbook.
The problem: caching means no updates
I’m going to assume here that you’re using a stable base image, which means package updates are purely focused on security fixes and severe bug fixes. So as a first pass we can assume you actually want these updates to happen on regular basis, because they’re both important and unlikely to break your code.
Consider the following Dockerfile:
FROM ubuntu:18.04 RUN apt-get update && \ apt-get upgrade -y && \ apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends python3 COPY myapp.py . CMD python3 myapp.py
The first time we build it, it will download a variety of Ubuntu packages, which takes a while.
The second time we run it, however,
docker build uses the cached layers (assuming you ensured the cache is populated):
$ docker build -t myimage . Sending build context to Docker daemon 2.56kB Step 1/4 : FROM ubuntu:18.04 ---> 94e814e2efa8 Step 2/4 : RUN apt-get update && apt-get upgrade -y && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends python3 ---> Using cache ---> 3cea2a611763 Step 3/4 : COPY myapp.py . ---> Using cache ---> f6173b1fa111 Step 4/4 : CMD python3 myapp.py ---> Using cache ---> 6222b50940a5 Successfully built 6222b50940a5 Successfully tagged myimage:latest
Until you change the text of the second line of the Dockerfile (“apt-get update etc.”), every time you do a build that relies on the cache you’ll get the same Ubuntu packages you installed the first time.
As long as you’re relying on caching, you’ll still get the old, insecure packages distributed in your images even after Ubuntu has released security updates.
That suggests that sometimes you’re going to want to bypass the caching.
You can do so by passing two arguments to
--pull: This pulls the latest version of the base Docker image, instead of using the locally cached one.
--no-cache: This ensures all additional layers in the
Dockerfileget rebuilt from scratch, instead of relying on the layer cache.
If you add those arguments to
docker build you will be ensured that the new image has the latest (system-level) packages and security updates.
Rebuild your images regularly
If you want both the benefits of caching, and to get security updates within a reasonable amount of time, you will need two build processes:
- The normal image build process that happens whenever you release new code.
- Once a week, or every night, rebuild your Docker image from scratch using
docker build --pull --no-cacheto ensure you have security updates.
The concise and action-oriented guide to Docker packaging for production
Docker packaging for production is complicated, with as many as 70+ best practices to get right. And you want small images, fast builds, and your Python application running securely.
Take the fast path to learning best practices, by using the Python on Docker Production Handbook.
Free ebook: "Introduction to Dockerizing for Production"
Learn a step-by-step iterative DevOps packaging process in this free mini-ebook. You'll learn what to prioritize, the decisions you need to make, and the ongoing organizational processes you need to start.
Plus, you'll join over 6500 people getting weekly emails covering practical tools and techniques, from Docker packaging to Python best practices.